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The BITSAVERS.ORG Documents Library: Digital Equipment Corporation

Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark DIGITAL, was a major American company in the computer industry. It was a leading vendor of computer systems, software and peripherals from the 1960s to the 1990s, with its PDP and VAX products were the most successful (in terms of sales) minicomputers. From 1957 until 1992 its headquarters was located in a former wool mill at Clock Tower Place, Maynard, Massachusetts. DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, which subsequently merged with Hewlett-Packard in May 2002. Some parts of DEC, notably the compiler business and the Hudson, Massachusetts facility, were sold to Intel.

Digital Equipment Corporation should not be confused with the unrelated companies Digital Research, Inc or Western Digital, although the latter manufactured the LSI-11 chipsets used in DEC's low end PDP-11/03 computers.

Initially focusing on the small-end of the computer market allowed DEC to grow without its potential competitors making serious efforts to compete with them. Their PDP series of machines became popular in the 1960s, especially the PDP-8, widely considered to be the first successful minicomputer. Looking to simplify and update their line, DEC replaced most of their smaller machines with the PDP-11 in 1970, eventually selling over 600,000 units and cementing DECs position in the industry. Originally designed as a follow-on to the PDP-11, DEC's VAX-11 series was the first widely used 32-bit minicomputer, sometimes referred to as "superminis". These were able to compete in many roles with larger mainframe computers, such as the IBM System/370. The VAX was a best-seller, with over 400,000 sold, and its sales through the 1980s propelled the company into the second largest in the industry. At its peak, DEC was the second largest employer in Massachusetts, second only to the state government.

The rapid rise of the business microcomputer in the late 1980s, and especially the introduction of powerful 32-bit systems in the 1990s, quickly eroded the value of DEC's systems. DEC's last major attempt to find a space in the rapidly changing market was the DEC Alpha 64-bit RISC processor architecture. DEC initially started work on Alpha as a way to re-implement their VAX series, but also employed it in a range of high-performance workstations. Although the Alpha processor family met both of these goals, and, for most of its lifetime, was the fastest processor family on the market, it did little to affect the bottom line or repair the company's status.

The company was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, in what was at that time the largest merger in the history of the computer industry. At the time, Compaq was focused on the enterprise market and had recently purchased several other large vendors. DEC was a major player overseas where Compaq had less presence. However, Compaq had little idea what to do with its acquisitions, and soon found itself in financial difficulty of its own. The company subsequently merged with Hewlett-Packard in May 2002. As of 2007 some of DEC's product lines were still produced under the HP name.

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TOPIC
data 1,137
file 728
program 712
digital equipment 653
error 644
command 628
mov 597
system 588
digital 559
address 533
device 490
memory 464
equipment corporation 453
mov mov 438
software 438
module 419
user 406
disk 327
dec 276
instruction 268
test 268
buffer 261
bus 250
control 246
jmp 232
system exerciser 221
output 220
input 214
power supply 211
exerciser 209
jsr 203
macro 203
interrupt 201
exerciser module 199
rev 197
fortran 196
parts list 193
processor 189
mode 186
block 183
paper tape 177
operating system 175
bne 171
assy 168
clr 163
cmp 162
files 162
tape 157
software product 151
corporation 149
magnetic tape 147
task 147
byte 145
version 145
character 144
beq 143
floating point 142
jms 139
cpu 138
print set 138
lac 137
signal 137
node 136
drive 135
interface 134
logic 132
status register 132
dac 131
network 130
code 129
terminal 123
open open 121
software support 120
cache 115
support services 113
commands 112
display 112
monitor 112
tst 111
support 110
routine 109
set 107
console 105
seq 105
type 105
support category 103
command file 102
flag 102
wrl 102
customer 99
unaltered release 98
status 97
controller 96
installation 96
power 95
switch register 94
file system 93
tad 93
unibus 92
cable 91
figure 89
handler 89
year period 89
document number 88
equipment 88
vax 88
disk drive 87
memory management 87
category 85
technical note 84
wrl technical 84
symbol table 83
clk 82
parity 82
statement 82
location 81
parity error 81
input file 80
format 79
pointer 79
reference manual 79
vector 79
oooooog 78
print 78
rom 78
stack 78
error message 77
pulse 77
symbol 77
switch 76
block diagram 75
dec form 75
error messages 75
oooooog oooooog 75
output file 75
string 75
message 74
server 74
virtual address 74
core memory 73
diagnostic 73
procedure 73
word count 73
csr 71
default 71
field 70
function 70
reference table 70
data transfer 68
address space 66
dectape 65
designated support 65
gnd 65
patch 65
record 65
vms 65
algorithm 64
contents 64
cross reference 64
decnet 64
decus 64
pin 64
core 63
disk cartridge 62
file specification 62
sheet 62
system generation 62
array 61
license 61
movb 61
product 61
subroutine 61
command string 60
remote 59
hlt 58
sel 58
source 58
trap 58
clock 57
document 57
halt 57
int 57
item 57
port 57
specification 57
binary 56
circuit 56
current unaltered 56
light pen 56
system disk 56
nodes 55
systems 55
user program 55
programs 54
text 54
unit 54
virtual 54
read data 53
src 53
data path 52
LANGUAGE
english 4,898
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Title
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From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: xxdp :: AC-F080A-MC X11monLib Sep78
Topics: mov, module, seq, routine, oooooog, globl, jsr, endif, address, inline, mov mov, common...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: handbooks :: 1974 Field Service Technical Manual Dec74
Topics: processor, applicability, tech, rev, author, reference, approval, cross, title, revision, cross...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp10 :: LCG GoodStuffNewsletters
Topics: confidential, error, ebus, company, debug, data, diagnostic, gnd, lcg, parity, company...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: modules :: modulesAndOptions :: Options and Modules List 197406
Topics: css, bfb, cat, snt, tpl, cont, engr, lbh, quad, ipg, css css, bfb bfb, lbh lbh, cat cat, eas eas,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: modules :: modulesAndOptions :: Options and Modules List 197409
Topics: bfb, css, cont, cat, ipg, tpl, engr, snt, quad, arr, css css, bfb bfb, cat cat, ipg ipg, status...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: xxdp :: fiche 200dpi :: 0170 CJKDJB0 1123B
Topics: mov, test, emt, cpu, cmp, cluster, dnmac, mode, beq, clr, cpu cluster, mov mov, beq emt, cmp beq,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: decus :: confProceedings :: DECUS 1968 Fall
Topics: data, program, system, computer, display, control, output, input, core, device, data acquisition,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: vax :: 780 :: fiche :: EP-ES0AA-DL-124 1of6 780uCode Jan82
Topics: pcs, microcode, patches, resvrd, patch, alu, fpla, fiche, code, frame, pcs microcode, microcode...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: xxdp :: fiche 200dpi :: 0187 CMT098.MCX 750uCod
Topics: rev, clokx, clock, rate, mode, address, operand, mdr, set, clock rate, clokx rev, floating point,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp10 :: KL10 :: 1080 2040 2060 Engineering Functional Spec
Topics: error, spec, iii, address, parity, data, rev, memory, user, iii iii, parity error, functional spec,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: Books :: 101 BASIC Computer Games Mar75
Topics: print, vou, goto, vour, input, program, gosub, computer, game, print print, program listing,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp10 :: KI10 :: KI10 Schem
Topics: key, scad, clk, clr, inst, cyc, ptr, sync, assertion, cycle, signal names, low assertion, assertion...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp10 :: KL10 :: MP01712 DN20F Engineering Drawings Mar84
Topics: bus, data, rev, assy, digital, corporation, dec, sheet, item, variation, equipment corporation,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: vax :: 780 :: MP00496 KA780 Nov77
Topics: data, bus, buff, sbi, csa, digital, buf, clk, alu, latch, digital equipment, read data, write data,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: vax :: ultrix-32 :: 3.0 :: AA-MF08A-TE ULTRIX-32 Supplementary Documents Vol.3-System Manager
Topics: gen, file, system, sys, command, program, pgm, files, disk, device, file system, system call, root...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: xxdp :: fiche 200dpi :: 0109 CSRQAD0 RQDX1
Topics: mov, oooooog, exerciser, error, cmp, addr, jsr, routine, seq, ascii, oooooog oooooog, test...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: 1105 :: 1105S Schem
Topics: goto, orr, rom, dec, assy, brg, oooo, nxt, dpf, rev, orr orr, equipment corporation, digital...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: rsts :: V07 :: RSTSE V7.0 InternalTraining
Topics: file, oooooo, disk, device, data, cache, caching, monitor, system, program, resident library, data...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: vax :: ultrix-32 :: 3.0 :: AA-MF06A-TE ULTRIX-32 Supplementary Documents Vol.1-General User
Topics: gen, command, file, sys, text, commands, unix, input, lines, pgm, system call, reference manual,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: Books :: Bell-ComputerEngineering
Topics: memory, data, processor, design, computer, instruction, logic, figure, control, instruction set,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: xxdp :: fiche 200dpi :: 0107 CZRCHB0 RC25fmtr
Topics: mov, ascii, oooooog, formatter, command, rev, error, disk, patch, code, disk formatter, zrchbs...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: modules :: modulesAndOptions :: editedOptionModuleLst Apr83
Topics: jam, dlf, mas, jbc, mgr, bin, upd, continued, jew, ldlk, jam jam, mas mas, jbc jbc, dlf dlf, ldlk...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: disc :: ra81 :: MP01359 RA81 Oct82
Topics: servo, rev, aaa, item, clk, assembly, cer, document, drive, cont, parts list, servo control, top...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp10 :: KL10 :: EK-OKL10-MG-004 KL10 Maintenance Guide Update Jun86
Topics: error, command, data, port, buffer, node, address, chk, parity, debug, parity error, error code,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: 1160 :: MAINDEC-11-DQFPB-B FP11-E May77
Topics: test, data, set, initial, float, mov, ptr, scope, fec, jsr, data set, test data, uata set, scope...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: 1160 :: MAINDEC-11-DQKDC-A 1160cpuExerc Jan77
Topics: mov, hlt, cpu, error, address, hov, cmp, tst, stack, data, mov mov, serifs cpu, series cpu, cpu...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: unibus :: RP11-C schemMay1973
Topics: gnd, bus, pin, lpr, gno, clr, silo, exceptions, remarks, bay, pin order, order bay, length...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: xxdp :: fiche 200dpi :: 0254 index 85-07
Topics: apr, oct, jul, feb, dec, sep, jun, aug, nov, tech man, number description, device number, device...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: engineering :: EL-ENGRS-OM-000 Engineering Orientation Manual Apr82
Topics: engineering, product, systems, software, digital, group, products, design, development,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: disc :: ra90 :: EK-ORA90-SV-003 RA90 RA92 Service Jun90
Topics: error, drive, servo, hda, ecm, internal, digital, sdi, fault, disk, digital internal, error codes,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: competitiveAnalysis :: Engineering Strategy Review Mar82
Topics: ibm, systems, dec, software, product, products, computer, system, nec, computing, company...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: 1160 :: MAINDEC-11-DQKKA-A 1160cacheDiag mar77
Topics: mov, cache, error, test, address, parity, data, tag, hov, log, parity error, mov mov, cache...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: vax :: 730 :: MP01364 FP730 Apr82
Topics: hex, dot, fpoo, fpo, loc, bus, bin, froc, fpon, fpoc, bus fpo, hex loc, hex dot, dot bin, bin dot,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: 1104 :: MP00019 1104 EngrDrws Feb78
Topics: bus, assy, dec, digital, pin, gnd, rev, gno, drawing, print, bus bus, print set, digital equipment,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: terminal :: vt340 :: K-TC-VT340 Schematic Feb87
Topics: rev, mfd, assy, module, document, alu, bpo, parts, gnd, parts list, document number, number rev,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: decus :: confProceedings :: DECUS 1967 Fall
Topics: data, program, system, california, computer, channel, user, peak, jmp, digital, data link, lawrence...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: vax :: 780 :: MP00534 KC780 Nov77
Topics: lct, assy, lsr, lsp, jump, crc, floppy, digital, ict, rotate, mum mum, digital equipment, floppy...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp8 :: handbooks :: SmallComputerHandbook Mar67
Topics: program, data, instruction, memory, content, linc, flag, octal, address, core memory, data break,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: rsx11 :: Micro RSX 3.0 Jul85 :: AA-Y539B-TC Micro RSX V3.0 Users Guide Jun85
Topics: command, file, indirect, default, batch, symbol, edt, device, files, user, indirect command,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp10 :: KA10 :: DEC-10-HMBB-D KA10 Maint Vol2 Set2
Topics: clr, set, key, pulse, lob, bus, pin, kaio, arlt, list kaio, twp list, pin color, general wiring,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: graphics :: GT40 Graphic Terminal Engineering Drawings Feb73
Topics: wire, bus, hanq, gnd, rom, dec, assy, goto, hand, corporation, hanq wire, hand wire, equipment...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp8 :: pdp8a :: PDP8A Schems Apr81
Topics: item, assy, data, rev, dec, memory, rom, digital, variation, bbuf, document number, parts list,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: decus :: decuscope :: Decuscope Vol06 1967
Topics: program, decus, university, data, fortran, programs, dec, jmp, dectape, massachusetts, digital...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: disc :: ra82 :: MP01427 RA82 Jun86
Topics: servo, rev, data, clk, item, enable, document, assembly, sel, erm, parts list, document number, top...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp10 :: Monitor :: DEC-10-MRZA-D Five Series Monitor Installation Guide Jul70
Topics: file, monitor, user, block, error, disk, data, return, blocks, str, file structure, error return,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: vax :: vms :: 5.0 :: AA-LB22A-TE VMS 5.0 Release Notes Apr88
Topics: vms, vax, version, system, command, file, upgrade, license, procedure, enter, vms version, release...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: xxdp :: fiche 200dpi :: 0133 CZTSCA0 TS11pt3
Topics: mov, trap, command, jsr, tssr, packet, test, data, ckloop, fatflg, selected trap, mov mov, packet...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp15 :: XV100 Schematics
Topics: bus, api, ind, assy, mdl, bfl, coax, dsr, ino, sum, sum bus, shift bus, bus bit, power supply, unit...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp10 :: TOPS20 :: AA-4166E-TM TOPS-20 Monitor Calls Reference Ver 5 Dec82
Topics: monitor, file, err, process, error, block, byte, jsys, pointer, monitor calls, err err, argument...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: ssi :: AA-5074O-RK System Software Information Jun88
Topics: vax, guide, spd, microvms, operating, product, software, base, manual, documentation, base...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp8 :: tss8 :: DEC-08-E50UA-A-D UG Aug75
Topics: file, program, user, command, error, statement, disk, monitor, files, dectape, internal file,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp10 :: Sze Introduction to DEC System-10 1974
Topics: file, program, command, fortran, data, batch, user, output, terminal, commands, fortran program,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: xxdp :: fiche 200dpi :: 0113 CZRQBC0 RQDX1fmtr
Topics: mov, oooooog, rdrx, command, routine, disk, global, formatter, rev, error, rdrx disk, global...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: graphics :: GT48A Engineering Drawings Oct75
Topics: dec, stack, mux, wire, ssib, assy, silo, etch, llll, rom, add wire, digital equipment, cut etch,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: xxdp :: fiche 200dpi :: 0100 COKDAB0
Topics: mov, error, cmp, test, data, apr, beq, clr, branch, jsr, mov mov, cpu error, cmp beq, oooooo...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: disc :: rm03 :: MP00350 RM03schem
Topics: lit, data, cont, ecc, tsb, clk, dat, lltttltl, csi, loc, loc loc, data tsb, lltttltl lltttltl, dat...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp15 :: XVM MUMPS Listing Sep75
Topics: lac, dac, jmp, char, sad, call, oac, isz, tad, mumps, char pos, call ochari, lac dac, call save,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: rsx11 :: RSX11Mplus V4.x :: AA-H435F-TC RSX-11M PLUS V4.2 Mini-Reference Jan89
Topics: file, command, task, default, directive, buffer, summary, logical, specifies, fortran, executive...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: qbus :: micronoteReprints
Topics: memory, address, mov, bus, components, data, bootstrap, modules, module, components group,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: qbus :: MP00706-ET-LSI-11 Dec81
Topics: dal, lat, bdal, dat, ram, mux, clk, kxti, mib, csr, digital equipment, equipment corporation, chk...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: disc :: rm05 :: MP01075 RM05 Part1
Topics: ttt, itt, tat, att, lit, tit, tta, comt, ata, css, document number, digital equipment, data...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp8 :: handbooks :: Small Computer Handbook 1973
Topics: data, memory, dec, flag, program, instruction, interrupt, octal, device, data break, word count,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: modules :: 8000 series :: 8000 Series Sep64
Topics: output, series, modules, outputs, volt, inputs, connections, module, input, nanosecond, output...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: rsx11 :: RSX11M V4.1 Apr83 :: 6 SysMgmt :: AA-L679B-TC rsx4.1sysMgmt
Topics: command, task, device, file, system, lox, error, terminal, console, mcr, syntax element, mcr...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp12 :: DEC-12-SRZB-D PDP12 SysRef
Topics: data, instruction, program, memory, octal, contents, tape, flag, address, data break, linc mode,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: unibus :: TC11EngDngs
Topics: ooo, wcm, dat, oooo, bus, assy, coco, cmcm, corporation, obus, ooo ooo, equipment corporation,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: 1144 :: MP00897 11X44sys Dec79
Topics: bus, pax, int, assy, digital, rev, data, item, code, sel, int bus, digital equipment, document...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: disc :: rk06 rk07 :: MP00576 RK07 schem Apr78
Topics: port, rev, cable, servo, dpi, etch, dec, loov, mmf, digital, document number, parts list, mmf loov,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: unibus :: RK11-C schemFeb1971
Topics: bus, rkdb, cable, gnd, rkda, pin, term, sel, int, rkob, int bus, pin order, cable term, equipment...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: disc :: ra60 :: MP01421 RA60 Dec82
Topics: rev, urt, sel, clk, variation, data, mfd, ecl, document, assy, parts list, top document, item top,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp10 :: periph :: DX20 microcode :: DXMCA
Topics: error, ldbr, movb, dxmca, jmp, aaa, status, oooooo, dati, xxx, magnetic tape, tape subsystem, dxmca...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: linc8 :: LINC8 Schematic Sep71
Topics: linc, ind, cable, corporation, data, mtg, chan, digital, equipment, conn, equipment corporation,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: vax :: bi :: KDB50 Microcode Listing Sep88
Topics: mov, oooooo, error, sdi, buffer, bar, assembler, digital, version, nop, assembler version, digital...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: handbooks :: Digital Logic Handbook 1967
Topics: input, output, pulse, converter, inputs, diode, digital, load, voltage, nsec, clamped load, pulse...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: handbooks :: Digital Logic Handbook 1973-74
Topics: input, output, logic, module, data, bus, series, volts, pin, pins, power volts, mounting panel,...